TLSv1.3 in Nutshell

by Anish

Posted on Sunday September 2, 2018

Refrence 8gwifi

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This sample chapter extracted from the book, The Modern Cryptograhy CookBook . The Book theme isCryptography is for EveryOne. Learn from Crypto Principle to Applied Cryptography With Practical Example

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TLS stands for Transport Layer Security and is the successor to SSL (Secure Sockets Layer). TLS allows client/server applications to communicate over the Internet in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery.
This write-up mostly focus on TLSv 1.3. TLS 1.3 was defined in RFC 8446 in August 2018. It is based on the earlier TLS 1.2 specification.

TLS Histrory and Development

Protocol Published
SSL 1.0 Unpublished
SSL 2.0 1995
SSL 3.0 1996
TLS 1.0 1999
TLS 1.1 2006
TLS 1.2 2008
TLS 1.3 2018

TLS1.3 has been over eight years since the last encryption protocol update, but the final version of TLS 1.3 has now been published as of August 2018 Image Ref

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Major Differences from TLS 1.2

enter image description here

From the Wireshark packet capture, its clearly visible the TLSv.1.3, the number of TLS Handshake packets is being reduced this offer better speed in TLS v1.3 , and some of the major changes from TLS1.2 as follows

  • The list of supported symmetric encryption algorithms has been pruned of all algorithms that are considered legacy. Those that remain are all Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) algorithms.

enter image description here

  • The cipher suite concept has been changed to separate the authentication and key exchange mechanisms from the record protection algorithm (including secret key length) and a hash to be used with both the key derivation function and handshake message authentication code (MAC).
  • A zero round-trip time (0-RTT) mode was added, saving a round trip at connection setup for some application data, at the cost of certain security properties. IMP 0-rtt should be avoided , there are proven replay attack has been found

  • All handshake messages after the ServerHello are now encrypted. The newly introduced EncryptedExtensions message allows various extensions previously sent in the clear in the ServerHello to also enjoy confidentiality protection.

enter image description here

  • Static RSA and Diffie-Hellman cipher suites have been removed; all public-key based key exchange mechanisms now provide forward secrecy.

  • The key derivation functions have been redesigned.

  • The handshake state machine has been significantly restructured to be more consistent and to remove superfluous messages such as ChangeCipherSpec (except when needed for middlebox compatibility).

  • Elliptic curve algorithms are now in the base spec, and new signature algorithms, such as EdDSA, are included. TLS 1.3 removed point format negotiation in favor of a single point format for each curve.

  • The TLS 1.2 version negotiation mechanism has been deprecated in favor of a version list in an extension. This increases compatibility with existing servers that incorrectly implemented version negotiation.

  • Session resumption with and without server-side state and the PSK-based ciphersuites of earlier versions of TLS have been replaced by a single new PSK exchange

TLS 1.3 Handshake

The handshake can be thought of as having three phases (indicated in the diagram below)
enter image description here

  1. In the first phase, the client sends the ClientHello message, which contains

    • random nonce (ClientHello.random);
    • protocol versions;
    • symmetric cipher/HKDF hash pairs; either a set of Diffie-Hellman key shares (in the "key_share" extension
    • A set of pre- shared key labels (in the "pre_shared_key" extension or both;
    • And potentially additional extensions.

enter image description here

The "key_share" extension contains the endpoint’s cryptographic parameters.In TLSv1.3 the client selects a “group” that it will use for key exchange.

The PSK: If clients offer "pre_shared_key" without a "psk_key_exchange_modes" extension, servers abort the handshake and used to negotiate the identity of the pre-shared key to be used with a given handshake in association with PSK key establishment

  1. The server processes the ClientHello and determines the appropriate cryptographic parameters for the connection. It then responds with its own ServerHello which indicates the negotiated connection parameters. The combination of the ClientHello and the ServerHello determines the shared keys

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  1. Upon receiving the server's messages, the client responds with its Authentication messages, namely Certificate and CertificateVerify (if requested), and Finished.

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TLSv1.3 Ciphersuites

OpenSSL has implemented support for five TLSv1.3 ciphersuites as follows:

  1. TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384

  2. TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256

  3. TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256

  4. TLS_AES_128_CCM_8_SHA256

  5. TLS_AES_128_CCM_SHA256

    openssl ciphers  -v | grep TLSv1.3
    TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384  TLSv1.3 Kx=any  Au=any  Enc=AESGCM(256) Mac=AEAD
    TLS_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256 TLSv1.3 Kx=any  Au=any  Enc=CHACHA20/POLY1305(256) Mac=AEAD
    TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 **TLSv1.3** Kx=any  Au=any  Enc=AESGCM(128) Mac=AEAD

openssl Start the TLSv1.3 server

The forthcoming openssl 1.1.1-pre9 (beta) release has included support for TLSv1.3.

openssl version
OpenSSL 1.1.1-pre9 (beta) 21 Aug 2018

openssl command to start the tls1.3 server

openssl s_server -accept 443  -tls1_3 -ciphersuites TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 -key key.pem -cert cert.pem
Using default temp DH parameters

Openssl Connect to TLSv1.3

The openssl command to connect to tlsv1.3.

openssl s_client -connect
New, TLSv1.3, Cipher is TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Server public key is 4096 bit
Secure Renegotiation IS NOT supported
Compression: NONE
Expansion: NONE
No ALPN negotiated
Early data was not sent
Verify return code: 18 (self signed certificate)
Post-Handshake New Session Ticket arrived:
    Protocol  : TLSv1.3
    Cipher    : TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
    Session-ID: 2BC1AB6B0BE58B527AE4CAEFEABC6D9654094BC1F4D529E5F3F0912A80C97001
    Resumption PSK: EA4A8E23B397F4F822B770C0922F47F7A66F6A7AA2F2DC4B94B961941AA87ACD611AC293259EFB130887F9A2D02AC89E
    PSK identity: None
    PSK identity hint: None
    SRP username: None
    TLS session ticket lifetime hint: 7200 (seconds)
    TLS session ticket:

TLSv1.3 server with Preshared Key

First generate a PSK key, and use this PSK to start TLSv1.3 server
openssl s_server -accept 443  -tls1_3 -ciphersuites TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384 -key key.pem -cert cert.pem -psk $PSK

Connect the TLSv1.3 server with same PSK

openssl s_client -connect -tls1_3 -psk $PSK

On the server side , By using PSK the server authentication is not done with a certificate but with a pre-shared key

Shared ciphers:TLS_AES_256_GCM_SHA384
Shared Signature Algorithms: ECDSA+SHA256:ECDSA+SHA384:ECDSA+SHA512:Ed25519:Ed448:RSA-PSS+SHA256:RSA-PSS+SHA384:RSA-PSS+SHA512:RSA-PSS+SHA256:RSA-PSS+SHA384:RSA-PSS+SHA512:RSA+SHA256:RSA+SHA384:RSA+SHA512
Supported Elliptic Groups: X25519:P-256:X448:P-521:P-384
Shared Elliptic groups: X25519:P-256:X448:P-521:P-384

Browser Support

Checkout the browser compatibility for TLS 1.3 here :

enter image description here

Further Reading

RFC 8446
Cloudflare TLS 1.3 and Q&A

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