The number of available network and host addresses are derived from the number of bits used for subnet masking. CIDR notation is a compact representation of an IP address and its associated routing prefix.
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A broadcast address is a logical address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams.
A message sent to a broadcast address is typically received by all network-attached hosts, rather than by a specific host
For example A /24 network may be divided into the following subnets by increasing the subnet mask successively by one bit. This affects the total number of hosts that can be addressed in the /24 network
|Prefix size||Subnet mask||Available
The following special addresses and networks exist in IPv4:
|0.0.0.0||the "ANY" address that is used by programs to speak to all network interfaces, it is never used directly. The whole network 0.*.*.* is reserved for special purposes (like DHCP).|
172.16.*.* - 172.31.*.*
|RFC Definend private address|
|127.0.0.1||is the localhost address The entire 127.*.*.* network is reserved for (host-)local networking.|
|169.254.*.*||Link-Local addresses. These are automatically generated by some operating systems and (e.g. MacOS and Linux with Avahi installed) and are only usable for local communication in the LAN segment.|
|198.18.*.* - 198.19.*.*||Network benchmark tests, this should never be used in production networks.|
|TEST-NET-2, Documentation and examples
TEST-NET-3, Documentation and examples
|224.*.*.*||Multicasts (former Class D network) - e.g. there is no default gateway or broadcast for multicasting|
|240.0.0.0/4||Reserved (former Class E network)|
|255.255.255.255||Link Broadcast - this is sent to all hosts on the same network link, but does not cross routers|